Celiac Disease (Celiac Sprue) – an Overview | Gastroenterology

Celiac Disease (Celiac Sprue)

What is celiac disease (celiac sprue)?

Celiac disease is a digestive disorder caused by an abnormal immune response to gluten. Also known as a celiac sprue:

  • Fir tree
  • Non-tropical sprue
  • Gluten-sensitive entropy

Gluten is a protein found in foods made from wheat, barley, rye, and triticale. It is also found in oats made in processing plants that handle other grains. Gluten is also found in some medications, vitamins, and lipsticks. Gluten intolerance, also known as gluten sensitivity, is characterized by the body’s inability to digest or break down gluten. Some people with gluten intolerance have a mild sensitivity to gluten, while others have celiac disease, which is an autoimmune disorder.

In celiac disease, the immune response to gluten creates toxins that destroy the will. Willy small finger-like bumps in the small intestine. When willy is damaged, the body cannot absorb nutrients from food. This can lead to other serious health problems, such as malnutrition and permanent intestinal damage.

If you have celiac disease, eating gluten can trigger an immune response in your small intestine. Over time, this reaction damages the lining of the small intestine and prevents it from absorbing certain nutrients (malabsorption). Intestinal damage often causes diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, bloating, and anemia and can lead to serious complications.

In children, malabsorption affects growth and development, causing symptoms similar to those seen in adults. There is no cure for celiac disease, but for many, following a strict gluten-free diet can help maintain symptoms and promote intestinal healing.

Who gets celiac disease?

While no one knows exactly why the following factors place you at greater risk for developing the condition:

  • An immediate family member with celiac
  • Exposure to gluten before 3 months of age
  • Major life event, emotional stress, pregnancy, or surgery in people who are genetically predisposed
  • Type 1 diabetes, thyroid disease, or another autoimmune disease
  • Another genetic disorder such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome

Symptoms of celiac disease

Celiac disease is not the same as a food allergy, so the symptoms are different. If you are allergic to wheat, eat anything that contains wheat, you may have itchy or watery eyes or shortness of breath.

Children with celiac disease have more digestive problems than adults, including:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Swelling of the belly
  • Constipation
  • Gas
  • Pale, foul-smelling stools

The inability to absorb nutrients can be due to:

  • Not raising babies
  • Damage to tooth enamel
  • Weight Loss
  • Anemia
  • Irritated
  • Short stature
  • Delayed puberty
  • Nervous symptoms, attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, headache, lack of muscle coordination, and seizures
  • Dermatitis herpetiformis
  • Symptoms of celiac disease in adults.

If you have celiac disease and you accidentally eat something that contains gluten, you may have the following symptoms:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Anemia
  • Swelling or a feeling of fullness
  • Bone or joint pain
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Gas
  • Acidity
  • Itchy, blistering rash (doctors call this dermatitis herpetiformis)
  • Headache or fatigue
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Nausea
  • Nervous system injury, numbness or tingling in the hands or feet, balance problems, or changes in perception
  • Pale poop, especially smelly or floaty (steatorrhea)
  • Weight Loss

Causes of celiac sprue

The exact cause of the celiac disease is unknown. The lining of the intestine consists of small areas called villi, which are external to the beginning of the intestine. These structures help in the absorption of nutrients.

When people with celiac disease eat foods with gluten, their immune systems are damaged. Due to the damage, the willy cannot properly absorb iron, vitamins, and other nutrients. It can cause many symptoms and other health problems.

The disease can develop at any time in life, from childhood to adolescence. People who have relatives with celiac disease are at higher risk of developing the disease. This disorder is more common in Europeans.

People with celiac disease are more likely to have:

  • Autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Zagren syndrome
  • Addison’s disease
  • Down’s Syndrome
  • Intestinal cancer
  • Intestinal lymphoma
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Thyroid disease
  • Diabetes type 1

Who is at risk for celiac disease?

Celiac disease is hereditary. According to the University of Chicago Medical Center, people are 1 in 22 more likely to have celiac disease if their parents or siblings have the condition.

People with other autoimmune diseases and certain genetic disorders are also more likely to develop celiac disease. Some conditions associated with celiac disease are:

  • Lupus
  • Arthritis
  • Diabetes type 1
  • Thyroid disease
  • Autoimmune liver disease
  • Addison’s disease
  • Sjogren’s syndrome
  • Down’s Syndrome
  • Turner syndrome
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Intestinal cancer
  • Intestinal lymphoma

How is celiac disease diagnosed?

Diagnosis begins with a physical exam and a medical history. Doctors perform various tests to confirm the diagnosis. People with celiac disease often have antibodies to endometriosis (EMA) and tissue transglutaminase (TTGA). These can be detected with blood tests. The tests are very reliable when performed on a gluten-free diet.

Common blood tests include:

  • Complete blood count (CBC)
  • Liver function tests
  • Cholesterol test
  • Alkaline phosphatase level test
  • Serum albumin test

In those with DH, a skin biopsy can also help doctors diagnose celiac disease. During a skin biopsy, the doctor removes small pieces of skin tissue for examination under a microscope. If the results of the skin biopsy and blood tests indicate celiac disease, an internal biopsy is not required.

In cases where the results of the blood tests or skin biopsy are incomplete, an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy may be used to diagnose celiac disease. During upper endoscopy, a thin tube called an endoscope is inserted through the mouth into the small intestine. A small camera attached to the endoscope allows the doctor to examine the intestines and check for damage to the willy. The doctor may also perform an intestinal biopsy, in which a sample of tissue is removed from the intestine for analysis.

Treatment of celiac sprue

A strict, gluten-free diet for life is the only way to control the celiac disease. Besides wheat, foods that contain gluten include:

  • Barley
  • Bulgur
  • Distance
  • Flour
  • Graham flour
  • malt
  • Rye
  • Semolina
  • Spelling (a form of brown)
  • Triticus

A dietitian who works with people with celiac disease can help you plan a healthy gluten-free diet. Even if it doesn’t cause signs or symptoms, it can also harm the amount of gluten in your diet.

Gluten can be hidden in food, medicine, and non-food products, including:

  • Modified dietary carbohydrates, preservatives and food stabilizers
  • Prescription and over-the-counter drugs
  • Vitamins and minerals
  • Herbs and nutrients
  • Lipstick products
  • Toothpaste and mouthwash
  • Communion Layers
  • Glue for envelopes and stamps
  • Knead the dough

Eliminating gluten from your diet will gradually reduce the inflammation in your small intestine so that you feel better and eventually recover. Children heal faster than adults.

Vitamins and minerals

If your anemia or nutritional deficiencies are severe, your doctor or dietitian may recommend that you take supplements, including:

  • Copper
  • Folate
  • Iron
  • B12 vitamin
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin K.
  • Zinc

Vitamins and supplements are generally taken in pill form. If you have trouble absorbing vitamins in your digestive system, your doctor may give you an injection.

Next care

Medical monitoring at regular intervals can ensure that your symptoms respond to a gluten-free diet. Your doctor will monitor your response with blood tests.

For most people with celiac disease, a gluten-free diet allows the small intestine to heal. In the case of children, it usually takes three to six months. For adults, complete healing can take many years.

If you have symptoms or the symptoms return, you may need endoscopy with biopsies to see if your intestine has healed.

  • Medicines to control intestinal inflammation: If your small intestine is severely damaged or you have refractive celiac disease, your doctor may prescribe steroids to control inflammation. Steroids can reduce the acute signs and symptoms of celiac disease while treating the gut. Other medications may be used, such as azathioprine (azazan, imuran) or budesonide (Entocort EC, Useris).
  • Treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis: If you have this rash, your doctor may recommend medications such as Dopson, which is taken by mouth, as well as a gluten-free diet. If you are taking Dopson, you will need regular blood tests to check for side effects.
  • Refractory celiac disease: If you have refractory celiac disease, your small intestine cannot be cured. Then you need to evaluate in a specialized centre. Refractory celiac disease is very serious and currently has no proven treatment.

Lifestyle and home remedies

If you have celiac disease, you should avoid all foods that contain gluten. Ask your doctor to prescribe a dietitian who can help you plan a healthy gluten-free diet.

Read labels

Unless packaged foods are labelled gluten-free or contain gluten-free ingredients, including gluten-containing emulsifiers and stabilizers. Besides cereals, pasta, and baked goods, other packaged foods that contain gluten include:

  • Beers, lagers, ales and malt vinegar
  • Sweets
  • Sauces
  • Imitation of meat or seafood
  • Processed flour meats
  • Rice mix
  • Salad dressings and sauces, including soy sauce
  • Delicious snacks like tortillas and fries
  • Satan
  • Self-fuel poultry
  • Soups

Pure oats are not harmful to most people with celiac disease, but wheat can contaminate them during cultivation and processing. Ask your doctor if you can try eating small amounts of pure oat products.

  • Allowed foods
  • Many staples are allowed on a gluten-free diet, including:
  • Eggs
  • Fresh meat, fish, and poultry are baked, floured, or marinated
  • Fruits
  • Lentils
  • Most dairy products, unless they make your symptoms worse
  • Walnuts
  • Potatoes
  • Vegetables
  • Wines and spirits, cider and spirits

Cereals and carbohydrates are allowed on a gluten-free diet:

  • Amaranth
  • Buckwheat
  • Corn
  • Corn
  • Gluten-free flour (rice, soy, corn, potato, beans)
  • Pure corn tortillas
  • Quinoa
  • Rice
  • Topioca
  • Wild rice

Complications of celiac sprue

If left untreated, celiac disease can be caused by:

  • Malnutrition: This happens when your small intestine doesn’t absorb enough nutrients. Malnutrition can lead to anemia and weight loss. In children, malnutrition progresses slowly and leads to short stature.
  • Bone weakening: Malabsorption of calcium and vitamin D can lead to bone loss in children (osteomalacia or rickets) and loss of bone density (osteoporosis or osteoporosis) in adults.
  • Infertility and spontaneous abortion: Poor absorption of calcium and vitamin D contributes to reproductive problems.
  • Lactose intolerance: Damage to the small intestine after eating or drinking dairy products that contain lactose can cause stomach pain and diarrhea. Once your gut has healed, you can tolerate dairy products again.
  • Cancer: People with celiac disease who do not eat a gluten-free diet are at increased risk for a variety of cancers, including intestinal lymphoma and small bowel cancer.
  • Nervous system problems: Some people with celiac disease may have seizures or complications, such as peripheral neuropathy.

Some people with celiac disease do not respond to what they think is a gluten-free diet. Unresponsive celiac disease is often caused by contamination of food with gluten. Working with a dietitian can help you learn how to avoid all gluten.

People with unresponsive celiac disease may have:

  • Bacteria in the small intestine (bacterial growth)
  • Microscopic colitis
  • Poor pancreatic function (pancreatic insufficiency)
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Difficulty digesting the type of sugar found in dairy products (lactose), table sugar (sucrose), or honey and fruits (fructose).
  • Refractory celiac disease

In rare cases, the intestinal lesion of celiac disease may not respond to a strict gluten-free diet. This is called refractory celiac disease. If you still have signs and symptoms after following a gluten-free diet for six months to a year, you may need further tests to find out other explanations for your symptoms.

What are the other health problems besides celiac disease?

Celiac sprue can lead to other health problems, including:

  • Malnutrition
  • Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that leads to fractures. This happens because the person has difficulty absorbing enough calcium and vitamin D.
  • Sterility
  • Bowel cancer (very rare)

People with celiac sprue can have other autoimmune diseases, including:

  • Thyroid disease or liver disease
  • Diabetes type 1
  • Lupus
  • Arthritis
  • Sjogren’s syndrome (a disorder that causes the glands to produce insufficient moisture)
  • Autoimmune liver disorders

Some people have “non-classical celiac disease,” the only symptom of which is anemia. Non-classical celiac disease is becoming the most common form of celiac sprue. Others may have “asymptomatic celiac disease” without symptoms.

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