Common physical therapy exercises and techniques
A physical therapist plans physical therapy exercises for an individual. These physical therapy exercises help patients to improve their physical condition, prevent any deterioration in the body, reduce the risk related to health and make the person healthy.
The physical therapist plans the physical therapy exercises according to the patient’s condition. They start by listening to the patient’s problem, check past and present medical history, examine the patient appropriately, and then make a tentative diagnosis. Based on this provisional diagnosis, they plan a treatment procedure.
Physical therapy exercises – Safety and environment:
Each physical therapy exercises should be done in the presence of the physical therapist. The physical therapist fills out an examination form with the detailed history of the patient. Generally, patients are not used to physical exertion and this can lead to injury. There are medications that can affect the balance and coordination of the patient. Therefore, these patients must be very careful when doing physical therapy exercises.
Physical therapy exercises must be carefully planned for elderly patients or heart patients. Always exercise in a protective environment. There should be bars or walls and the physical therapist or family members present around elderly patients or patients with impaired balance. Equipment used during exercise should be well maintained. They must be in good working order. A patient must be aware of her signs of fatigue. If the patient feels any discomfort during exercise, she should inform her physiotherapist. They should be learned about the risks before the physical therapy exercises. They should be knowledgeable about the importance of rest after exercise. The repetitions of the exercises should be performed accordingly. Little by little they should increase.
What physical therapy exercises should I choose?
- Range of motion exercise: These exercises are done to increase the range of motion of the joints. This help maintains joint movement. There is a various self-assisted range of motion equipment that help increase range, such as the pulley, wand, T-bar, skateboard, powder board, finger ladder, wall climbing and ball rolling.
- Stretching exercises: These are done to keep the body flexible. Stretching exercises are performed for all joints.
There are three components of the exercise program:
- Warm-up phase: Start with warm-up exercises before heavy exercise. The purpose of the warm-up phase is to reduce the risk of injury by increasing muscle temperature. This helps stop arrhythmia in cardiac patients during exercise. This phase usually lasts between 10 and 15 minutes. Take a slow walk. The heartbeat should be up to 20 beats/minute from the target heart rate.
- Aerobic exercise phase: This is the habituation part of the exercise program. This is the phase where you can increase the level of exercise. This should be within the tolerance level. It should not be so difficult that it causes clinical symptoms. Certain exercises for the aerobic phases are:
- Continuous exercise: In this type of training, the exercise routine is carried out continuously. In a healthy individual, continuous training is an effective way to improve endurance.
Interval exercise: In this type of training, exercise is followed by a rest interval. In a healthy person, interval training improves strength and power.
- Circuit training: It is a group of exercises that are performed without interruption. It is a set of exercises that are performed one after another, and the last exercise is followed by the first. It is an effective method to improve strength and power in people.
- Cooling phase: It is necessary to enhance the recovery period and prevent myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias or other cardiovascular complications. The period should last 5-10 minutes.
- Balance exercise: To maintain the balance of the body. This helps prevent falls. This includes: standing with the eyes closed, standing with a narrow base of support, standing on one leg, standing on one leg with the eyes closed, and exercises with a rocking board with the help of a physical therapist. Other exercises such as standing up with the tip of the toe and the heel together.
- Aquatic exercises: Exercises performed in swimming pools. They facilitate a variety of movements, strengthen, stretch and induce relaxation. This minimizes the risk of injury. Certain aquatic equipment can also be used as collars, belts, rings, buoyancy belts, floating belts, swim bars, skateboards, and hand paddles.
- Strengthening exercises: Strength training exercises are used to strengthen muscles. Strong bands, weights, bands, and tubes can help with this.
- Breathing exercises: Try to get into a comfortable position. Then inhale through your nose and exhale through your mouth as if blowing out the candle.
- Relaxation exercises: Various exercises like deep breathing exercises, meditation, pranayama, tai chi and others help to relax the body and mind.
What happens when you stop exercising?
Physical therapy exercises are useful for many reasons. There are many negative effects of not exercising.
- You gain weight, which can lead to diabetes, joint pain, and high cholesterol.
- Coronary heart disease
- Weakening of muscles
- Increased risk of colon, breast and prostate cancer.
- The weakening of bones: Exercises help strengthen bones. Exercises help overcome osteoporosis.
Physical therapy exercises for hips:
- Bring both knees to your chest and grip your thighs firmly until you feel the sensation of stretching in your posterior hip region. Repeat this exercise.
- Stand with your hips extended and your knee bent and grasp your ankle. Maintain position and do not allow your back to arch or bend sideways during the stretch.
- Raise one leg to 45 degrees. Hold for 5 seconds and then down. Repeat with another leg.
- Lie on your side and lift your leg across the couch. You can bend the lower leg. Hold for 5 seconds. Repeat on the other side.
- Try to bring your buttocks together. Hold for 5 seconds and release. You can do this exercise in a standing or lying position.
Physical therapy exercises for the neck:
- Sit in a comfortable position. Keep both hands on your forehead and press your forehead forward into your palms without moving your head. The head position should be neutral.
- Sit in a comfortable position. Press one hand against the side of the head and try to lean to the side, as if trying to bring the ear to the shoulder but not allowing the head to move. Repeat on the other side.
- Sit in a comfortable position and place both hands on the back of your head near the top of your head. Press the back of your head with both hands without moving your head.
Chin flex exercise:
This can be done in a sitting and standing position, try to bring the chin towards the neck. Grip this position for 5 seconds and repeat it 10 times twice a day.
Try to touch the head with the left shoulder and with the left hands try to force the head more by feeling the stretch. Repeat on the other side.
Physical therapy exercises for knee pain:
- Hold a towel roll under the knee and try to press the knee for 5 seconds and repeat 10 times.
- Hold a towel roll under your heels and try pressing your heel for 5 seconds and repeat 10 times.
- Exercises for knee pain
- Keep a rolled towel between your knees and try to press down on the towel. Count for 5 seconds and repeat 10 times.
- Kneeling exercise
- In a sitting position, try to extend your knees and hold for 5 seconds and repeat 10 times. You can progress by keeping your knee at a different angle.
Physical therapy exercises for shoulder pain:
Exercises to increase joint movement:
These exercises help in certain conditions such as frozen shoulder or stiffness after a fracture. This includes
- Wand exercises: lie down on the table. Hold a barbell and swing your arms up.
- Do these exercises in a standing position. Stand with a barbell. Try to separate your hand from your body.
Stand with your torso bent at the hip 90 degrees. Arms hang loosely down. A pendulum trunk or rocking motion of the arm is initiated by causing the patient to move the trunk slightly backwards or forward.
Gear change exercise:
Sitting with the arm involved at the side, holding a cane or wand with the tip resting on the floor to support the weight of the arm. The patient is instructed to move the post forward, backward, and diagonally.
- This exercise can be performed in a sitting or standing position, bring the right arm closer to the left shoulder and apply pressure to the right arm by pulling the arm towards the chest. Repeat with another arm.
- Stand with your back to the table, both hands grasping the edge with your fingers forward, try squatting while letting your elbows bend.
- Stand in front of an open corner or door, arms inverted T or V against the wall, lean the whole body advancing from the ankles, the degree of stretch can be familiar by the amount of forwarding movement.
Exercises are a very important part of life. One should do regular exercises under proper guidance. Take all security measures. Increase the intensity of these physical therapy exercises under the proper guidance of the physical therapist.